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Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Williamson County's Fort Negley connections

On Saturday, December 2nd at 4 pm, Fort Negley Park hosted a ceremony to honor the people behind the 2,771 names listed in the "Employment Rolls and Nonpayment Rolls of Negroes Employed in the Defenses of Nashville, Tennessee, 1862-1863." 

Dr. Eleanor Fleming, a Franklin native, participated in that program.  She was also interviewed as part of the Fort Negley Descendants Project - her interview appears here:

Many of those people who helped build Fort Negley - like Dr. Fleming's descendants - were from Williamson County.  So far, I have identified more than fifty men specifically.  I suspect the numbers are far higher.  Below is a list of their names, and if I have written blog posts about them, I have hyperlinked their names to those posts.  I encourage you to attend the ceremony on Saturday if you are able, and to remember these men.  Consider what they managed to accomplish - not just for themselves, but for their families, their futures and their country.  And if you think, or know, that you descend from a laborer on the fortifications around Nashville, please consider joining the fight to save Fort Negley Park.  Even if you aren't related to one of these laborers, but you believe its the right thing to do, as I do, to preserve a place to tell and honor their service and stories, please join the effort, in honor of these men:
  1. James (Jim) Allison - listed as laborer #1987 enslaved by A. Allison; James appears back in Williamson County farming in 1870, 30 years old, married to his wife Mary with four children.
  2. Joseph Allison/Ellison - listed as laborer # 2283 enslaved by T. Allison; Joseph appears back in Williamson County farming in 1870, 33 years old, married to his wife Jane with two children; after Jane's death he would marry Mariah Crutcher Scruggs, the great-grandmother and great-greatgrandmother of several people living today in Franklin
  3. Charles Alexander - two men with this name are listed as laborers #775, 1607; Charles appears back in Williamson County farming in 1870, 30 years old, married to his wife Dicey with five children.
  4. James Andrews (USCT) - listed as laborer # 2278 enslaved by L. Andrews; James enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry and served as a waggoner; he mustered out January 16, 1866 in Nashville; in 1870 he appears in Williamson County, I think living with his brother and his brother's family
  5. Austin Beach [Bench] (USCT) - two men with this name laborers #498, 2319; Austin was born in Franklin and enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry in Nashville on August 12, 1863; he was discharged due to disability on October 28 1863 at the Elk River.
  6. Wm. (Bill) Beasley - listed as laborer # 321, enslaved by J. Beasley; by 1870 William was back in Williamson County, 30 years old, farming, married to his wife Chaney
  7. Harry Berry - listed as laborer Harrison Berry #241, enslaved by B. Berry; by 1870 Harry was back in Williamson County, 30 years old, working as a farm laborer, married to his wife Lizzie
  8. Washington Berry (USCT) - two laborers with this name appear #240, 2310, both enslaved by B. Berry; Washington was born in Williamson County and enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry on August 12, 1863 in Nashville, he mustered out on January 16, 1866 
  9. Carl Bradford (USCT) - this might be laborer Charles Bradford, #1184; Carl was born in Williamson County and enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry on August 12, 1863 in Nashville, he mustered in at Kingston Springs; he later became a drummer and was mustered out January 16, 1866 in Nashville
  10. Egbert Bright - listed as laborer # 1086, enslaved by D. Bright; by 1880, Egbert was 30 years old, living in Williamson County and working as a farm laborer; he was widower with two children
  11. Ruffin Bright - listed as laborer # 1084, enslaved by D. Bright; by 1880, Ruffin was 57 years old, living in Williamson County and working as a farm laborer; he was married to his wife Jane with five children
  12. Alexander Brown (USCT) - listed as laborer Alex Brown #1905 enslaved by "Brown"; Alexander was born in Williamson County and enlisted in the 13th US Colored Infantry on October 22, 1863 in Nashville; Alexander was in several battles including Johnsonville and Nashville, he mustered out January 10, 1866 in Nashville.
  13. George Brown (USCT) - three men George, George No.1 and George No. 2 are listed as laborers #2297, 1096, 1097; by 1870, George was back in Williamson County working as farm laborer married to his wife Tabitha with five children
  14. Isaac Brown - listed as laborer #1092, enslaved by T. Brown; by 1880, Isaac Brown is in Williamson County working as a farm laborer
  15. Green Carothers - listed as laborer Green Caruthers #993 enslaved by J. Caruthers; body servant from Williamson County, 20th Tennessee Infantry
  16. Jesse Carothers (USCT) - two laborers named Jesse Caruthers are listed as laborers #243, 699; born in Franklin, Williamson County enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry on September 28, 1863 in Nashville; mustered out January 10, 1866 in Nashville
  17. Pleasant Carothers - listed as laborer # 736 enslaved by J. Caruthers; on July 9, 1867, Pleasant was injured in the "Race Riot" that occurred in Franklin; in 1868 her married Jennie Bailey and in 1891 registered to vote in Williamson County.
  18. Jefferson Cartwright (USCT) listed as laborer #2352 enslaved by J. Cartwright; born in Williamson County, on August 12, 1863 he enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry in Nashville.
  19. Isaac Cater (USCT) - listed as laborer Isaac Carter #2368 enslaved by M. Carter; born in Williamson County, enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry on August 12, 1863 in Nashville; on April 7, 1865 he died of pneumonia in a regimental hospital in Kington Springs
  20. Charles Clayborn (USCT) - listed as laborer Charles Claiborne #2122 enslaved by T. Claiborne; born about 1847 in Williamson County; enlisted in the 17th US Colored Infantry on April 5, 1864; he was killed in action at the Battle of Nashville December 15, 1864.
  21. Mills Compton (USCT) - two men named "Miles Compton" appear as laborers #483, 2358; born in Williamson County enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry August 12, 1863 in Nashville.
  22. Edmund Davis (USCT) - listed as laborer Edmond Davis #2377, enslaved by Z. Davis; born in Williamson County, enlisted in the 40th US Colored Infantry on July 18, 1863 in Nashville
  23. John Dodson - listed as laborer #2388, enslaved by T. Dodson; appears in Williamson County in 1900 working as a day laborer, living with his daughter Sarah. 
  24. Michael “Mike” Ensley (USCT) - listed as laborer #2088 enslaved by C.P. Davis; born in Williamson County; enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry on August 12, 1863 in Nashville; he died April 8, 1864 of disease.
  25. Andrew Ewing (USCT) - two laborers with this name appear #953, 2406, enslaved by W. Ewing; born in Williamson County, enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry; he was left sick at hospital in Franklin December 18, 1864; in 1866 he entered into a labor contract with William Giles and married; he died in 1901 at the age of 70.
  26. John Gaines (USCT) - laborer #2427, enslaved by F. Gaines; born in Williamson County, enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry on August 12, 1863 in Nashville.
  27. Burton Glass - listed as laborer #906, enslaved by P. Glass; Burton Glass was born in 1818 and enslaved in Williamson County, husband of Milly Glass and father of Wiley Scruggs; by 1880 he appears back on the Census in Williamson County working as a farmer; in 1891 he registered to vote in Williamson County
  28. Luke Hays – listed as laborer #2450, enslaved by L. Hayes; Confederate body servant; born in Williamson County in 1852, 
  29. Claiborn Helm (USCT) - listed as laborer #2459 enslaved by H. Helm; born in Williamson County, enlisted in the 12th US Colored Infantry on August 12, 1863.
  30. Jack Henderson - listed as laborer #2451, enslaved by S. Henderson
  31. William Henderson - listed as laborer #1928, enslaved by S. Henderson
  32. Lewis Holt – enslaved on Wildwood plantation in Brentwood - two men listed as Lewis Holt laborer #s 1022, 2466, enslaved by T. Holt
  33. Adam Hughes (USCT) - Laborer #2453, enslaved by J. Hughes
  34. Henry Jackson - Laborer # 1881, enslaved by G. Jackson
  35. Andrew G. Johnson (USCT) - listed as laborer #641, enslaved by R. Johnson
  36. Charlie Johnson - two men named Charles Johnson listed as laborers # 474, 1073
  37. Thomas Johnson (USCT) - two laborers with this name appear on the list Files #500 and 2506
  38. William Johnson (USCT) - two laborers with this name listed with #s 1417, 2504
  39. George Jones - two laborers with this name listed with #s 885, 943
  40. William Jones (US Navy) - three laborers with this name are listed with #s 1368, 1778, 2494
  41. Daniel Jordan (USCT - laborer #2507 enslaved by Y. Jordan
  42. John Jordan (USCT) - listed as laborer #2496 enslaved by J. Jordan
  43. Dick (Richard) King - listed as laborer #1933, enslaved by P. King
  44. George King (USCT) - three men with this name are listed as laborers - #s 1006, 1453, and 2513, enslaved by J. King
  45. Harvey Ledbetter (USCT) - laborer “Herry Ledbetter” #2531 enslaved by A. Ledbetter
  46. George Mays (USCT) - laborer #399 enslaved by S. Mays
  47. John Merrill - listed as John Murrill laborer # 2155, enslaved by H. Murrill
  48. James Moore (USCT) - listed as laborer #1991, enslaved by Widow Moore
  49. Thomas Nolan - listed as laborer #910, enslaved by H. F. Nolan (his mother was Ettie Cunningham)
  50. Elijah Oglesby (Ogleby) (USCT) - Laborer #2589 enslaved by R. Oglesby
  51. Hugh Oty - probably Hugh Otey, listed as laborer #348, enslaved by J. Oty (probably John Otey, brother of Episcopal Bishop James Otey)
  52. John Perkins (USCT) - listed as laborer #1225, enslaved by T. Perkins
  53. Frank Petway (USCT) - laborer #329 enslaved by Mrs. Petway
  54. Augustus Pratt (USCT) - listed as laborer "Guss Pratt" #892 enslaved by A. Pratte
  55. Ephraim Rawlston (USCT) - listed as laborer "Ephraim Raelston" #2630 enslaved by R. Raelson
  56. Joseph Reece (USCT) - listed as laborer #2632 enslaved by P. Reese
  57. Martin Ridley (USCT) - listed as laborer #304, enslaved by J. T. Ridley
  58. Peter Sawyer (USCT) - listed as Peter Sayers, laborer # 1493, enslaved by "Sayers"
  59. Ned Scruggs (USCT) - listed as laborer #923, enslaved by Theo Scruggs
  60. George Smith - three laborers by this name are listed as #s 250, 939, 2653
  61. John Sneed (USCT) - laborer #2255 enslaved by J.P. Sneed
  62. James Strong (USCT) - listed as James Stong, laborer #388 enslaved by J. Stong (Strong)
  63. Warren Swansey (USCT) - laborer #2642 enslaved by J. Swansey
  64. Ben Swanson (Swansey) 2nd (USCT) - laborer #2643 enslaved by J. Swansey
  65. Archie Terrill (USCT) - this is laborer "Archy Terrill" #2684 enslaved by H. Terrill
  66. Freeman Thomas (USCT) (not on rolls, but says he worked on fortifications in pension) enslaved by James Caruthers
  67. Robert Waddy (USCT) - listed as laborer "Robert Wade" #89 enslaved byW. Wade
  68. John L. Wesley (USCT)  - listed as laborer #929 enslaved by J. W. Radcliff
  69. George Wilson - two laborers listed with this name #s 97 &1348

Friday, November 3, 2017

Free People of Color, Part I

When conducting genealogical research on African Americans in Williamson County, its easy to forget that some of your ancestors may have been free people of color.  We often forget there were free people of color here too since 12,000 people were enslaved by the time the Civil War broke out. More than half of the population was in bondage - no other county in middle Tennessee had more than half its population living in slavery in 1860.


Map Showing the Distribution of the Slave Population in the Southern States, 1860
However, don't forget to look in emancipation (also called manumission) records and the records for free people of color.  I will write another blog about the laws governing Free People of Color in Williamson County, but this post is primarily a listing of all the names of those individuals that I could find.  I hope that it proves useful to future researchers and someone may find a clue that helps piece your family tree back together.



Emancipations of African Americans in Williamson County

1812 - July Term - Williamson County Court
  • James "Jimmy" Hill (free man of color) appears before the court; states that he was emancipated by Ben Crawley of Amelia County, Virginia by deed dated January 25, 1787 and recorded there; on March 1, 1798 he purchased his wife Virginia and two children Sally and Moses from William Mosley of Chesterfield County, Virginia.  The couple had two more children - Will and Joe - and wants them and his wife to all be issued emancipation papers.  (Guardian Accounts Book 2, Page 14)
    • Philip Sumner and his mother Julia  were emancipated upon the petition of Thomas Edward Sumner in recognition of the service rendered by Julia to the Sumner family. Philip is described as 25 years old and mulatto, single and a blacksmith. Julia is 42 years old of "light complexion" and 5'5" tall.
    1817 - January Term - Williamson County Court
    • Harry Willis and Cyrus Africans were emancipated on the petition of Thomas Edward Sumner 

    Census Records for Free 
    African Americans in Williamson County

    1820 Census 
    • Clarisa Deshan - Female (aged 14-25) with a male under the age of 14 (presumably her son?), listed in the town of Franklin
    • Joel Terrell - appears to be the sole white person (male over the age of 45) living with 8 free people of color: 2 males under 14, 1 male aged 14-25, 3 females under 14, 1 female aged 14-25 and one female 26-44 (perhaps his wife?). 
    • Isaac Williams [note there is also a white Isaac Williams in the 1820 Williamson County census] - Isaac was probably the male aged 26-44, there was also a female under 14 and (perhaps Isaac's wife) a free woman aged 14-25.
    • Elisabeth Franklin was heading a household of 6 free people of color: one male under the age of 14, one male 14-25, one male 45 and older, two females 14 through 25, and one female 45 and old (probably Elisabeth) - Isaac and Elisabeth and recorded right next to each other in the Census book
    • Waller Harris appears to be a male aged 26-44 heading a family made up of perhaps a wife (female aged 26-44) and boy under the age of 14
    Entry from the 1820 Census book for Williamson County (City of Franklin) showing Isaac Williams and Elisabeth Franklin being recorded as a Free man of Color and Colored Woman respectively
    1830 Census 
    • Whitby ? Brickell - This listing was a little hard to decipher because to me, it almost appears to be the name of a company - "Whitby & Brickell" - on the census but I think its a white couple headed by a man named Whitby Brickell with one male slave, and two free people of color - a woman and a young girl.



    • Joseph Anderson - The white family of 8, has three slaves and one free male aged 36-54 years old.
    • Estate of J. Branch - This is really unusual.  The Estate of Joseph Branch claims one slave (a male over the age of 55) and a free colored boy, under the age of ten years old.  In doing some research, he had died just a few years before this Census. It appears as though the boy was in a trust being held by his daughter perhaps - but its not clear why the free man was associated with the trust and they boy wasn't counted with Branch's daughter.  Branch had moved to Williamson County sometime in the 1820s from Halifax County, North Carolina - when he was in that area he had 20 slaves
    • Brooks Gamble - a free black male aged 36-55, who appears to own 5 slaves; in a reference book - he is recorded as owning 11 individuals (but I don't think this is correct)






    1840 Census - aggregate charts available on Ancestry beginning here
    • Portarchone free 20-30 year old female in the white household of Benjamin Portarch; 
    • Blackwell: in the family of Henry Blackwell (all black): two males under 10, one male 35-55, two females under 10, two females ten to 24; 
    • Maury: one female 36 to 55; the family of Ralston Maury (all black) one male and one female 24-36; 
    • Binghamone male 10-24 years old in the white family of William Bingham and one male 10-24 years old in the white family of James Bingham; 
    • John Fitzgerald (a young white male) has a 36-55 year old free black man listed in his family;
    • William Cheatham's (all black) family of one male under the age of 10, one male 35-55, one female under 10, one female 24 to 35 and one female 55 and older;
    • Neeley: one black male living alone named Hannibal Neeley, aged 36-55; 
    • Daniels Williams' family made up of   one male over 55 (probably Daniel!), and three females -one aged 10-24 and two ages 55-100; 
    • Glass: counted next to the Williams' family is one 36-55 year old woman named Hester Glass
    • Brown: one 24-35 year old woman living in the white family of Thomas Brown; 
    • Stockets: living in in the white family of Stephen Stockets are a man and woman each aged 56-100
    • Wyatt: living in the white family of Thomas Wyatt is a female aged 24-35
    • Reuben Nichols (probably the male over the aged of 55) listed as the head of the family with two females aged 35-55 and 55 and over; 
    • Graham: the white Richard A.Graham family listed with two black females under the age of 10 and one black female aged 24-35 (probably their mother); 
    • Merrill: the white Charles A. Merrill family listed with one male under the age of ten and one female age 35-55
    • Saunders Scott is the head of his family comprised of two males under the age of 10, one male 24-35 (probably him!), two females under 10, and one female 10-23 (perhaps his wife; 
    • Aaron Hood is the head of his own household comprised of one male 36-54 (probably Aaron), one female 24-35 (perhaps his wife), and one female 55-99); 
    • Kennedy - in the household of the single man Patrick Kennedy is one male aged 36-54; 
    • Abraham Gant's household of two men  - one aged 10-23, one aged 55-99;
    • Edward Epps' household of female slave aged 50-60, and one free male aged 10-23, one free male aged 56-100, and two females 10-24;
    • Graham - the white household of William Graham contains one female under the age of 10;
    • Robert Haddley (Waddey?), a free male aged 55-99 and in his household a female aged 36 through 54;
    • Moses Hill, a single male aged 24-35;
    • Penny Sumner [indexed as Leemuer], a woman aged 24-35, and presumably her children - three boys under ten, and a daughter aged 10-23 years.
    • Mangrum - in the white household of W.H. Mangrum, a male aged 36-54;
    • Wyatt - in the white household of Spencer Wyatt, a female over 100 years old (!);
    • Owen - in the white household of George W. Owen, four free people (and six slaves), including three boys under ten and a female 24-25 (perhaps their mother?);
    • Johnson - in the white household of James Johnson, one male aged 36-54;
    • McLean - in the white household of James McLean, six free people including three males under ten, two females under ten and one female aged 24-35 (perhaps their mother?). Also 14 slaves and only 2 white people. 
    • Green - in the white household of Mary (Henry?) Green, one female aged 55-99 (also 32 slaves and just 5 white people);
    • Maury - in the white household of Riley D. Maury - one female aged 25-34, along with 3 slaves and 9 white people.
    • Matthew Campbell's household - likely headed by the male aged 35-54 and a woman (his wife perhaps?) aged 24-35, along with some children two males under ten, and a girl under ten.
    • Chadwell - in the white household of John Chadwell - two females - perhaps a mother and daughter? ages 36-54 and 10-23.
    • Elliott - in the white household of Alpheus Elliott - a female aged 10-23 aged. 
    • Jacob Jamieson, perhaps the male at the head of his household aged 36-54, along with a female of the under aged 10-23.  
    • Cynthia McCutchen was probably the female aged 24-35, along with her children? - a daughter aged 10-23, two girls under ten and a son under ten.

    Cynthia McCuthen appears to gave gained her emancipation as a result of the lawsuit that you can read a this link.  At issue was the provision in the will of the James McCutchen who enslaved her and several other individuals:

    'It is my will and desire that my negro man slave named Jack, aged about twenty-four years; also my negro man slave named Ben, aged about nineteen years; also my negro woman slave named Rose, aged about twenty-six years, together with what children she may hereafter have, if any, before the death of my wife Hannah; also my negro girl slave named Eliza, aged about eleven years; also my negro girl slave named Cynthia, aged about seven years; also my negro boy slave named Thomas, aged about four years; also my negro girl slave named Harriet, aged about two years; also my negro girl slave named Maria, aged about two months; the four last mentioned slaves being the children of the above mentioned Rose, shall all and each, at the time of the death of my beloved wife Hannah, to whom they are given during her natural life, as mentioned in the third article, be liberated from slavery, and for ever and entirely set free: provided, those who are not now of age or shall not have arrived at the age of twenty-one years at the happening of the death of my beloved wife Hannah, shall be subject to the following disposition, viz. Eliza shall be at the control and under the direction of my brother Samuel M'Cutchen until her arrival at the age of twenty-one years, and then be set free; Cynthia, Ben, Thomas, Harriet and Maria, shall be at the control and under the direction of James Marshall, my wife's brother, until they shall each, respectively, arrive at the age of twenty-one years; at which time, or times, they are to be each, respectively, liberated, and for ever set free.'
    • Boyd - in the white household of William G. Boyd (3 whites, 26 slaves) and a free male aged 36-54.
    • Pierson - in the white household of Jesse A. Pierson (10 whites, 2 slaves) free female 24-25
    • Peay - in the white household of Susan Peay (Pray) (3 whites, 5 slaves) free male aged 10-23.
    • Crutcher - in the white household of William Crutcher (12 whites, 10 slaves) free male aged 55-99 
    • Horton - in the white household of Henry C. Horton (11 whites, 16 slaves) free male aged 55-99
    • Wallis - in the white household of Andrew S. Wallis (9 whites, 5 slaves) free male aged 24-35
    • Andrews - in the white household of George Andrews (9 whites, 1 slave) free male aged 16-24
    • Dean - in the white household of John Dean (8 white, 7 slaves) free male aged 36-54
    • Clem Ivey household (indexed as Irey) - 2 males under 10, 1 male 36-54 - perhaps Clem?), 4 females under 10, 1 female 36-54 - Clem's wife?)
    • Miles Tate (indexed as Sate) - one free male aged 36-54, the head of his single person household.
    1850 Census
    • District 2- Edward, Margaret and Mary Epps - all mulatto (biracial)
    • District 3 - Franklin Brown (black), living in the home of the William Bingham family (farmers)
    • District 4 - Hannibal Nunley (60 years old male, black), living alone, from Virginia; Daniel & Jane  Williams living Ellen Lemmer - all black;
    • District 5 - George Lewis (21 year old male, black) - part of the white Enoch Brown family?
    • District 6 - Cynthia McGathern and twin? 8 year olds - girl Mahmwell? and boy Alexander - all black from Tennessee
    • District 9 - Viney Campbell, 38 year old black female from Virginia with children? Eliza, Mary Jane, Daniel, and Loudon Lee - all born in Tennessee; 
      • followed by - perhaps? not clear if they are white or black and mulatto - 60 year old black Aaron Hood and 65 year old Elizabeth Hood (mulatto?), with Elizabeth Blackwell (23 year old mulatto); 
      • Martin Scott - 29 year old black male (shoe and boot maker born in Tennessee); 
      • Hale Brown, 22 year old black cabinet maker born in Tennessee - living in the white family of Bailey Coady - also a shoemaker; 
      • Landers Scott (probably Saunders) 45  and wife? Judy 27 with teenage boys Henry and Martin - Sanders is working as a wool carder with assets of $400, they are all from Tennessee ("Landers" is Saunders Scott in the 1840 Census)
      • Elijah Porter, 45 year old mulatto laborer born in Kentucky; 
      • Hannah Henderson, 70 year old black female from North Carolina; 
      • living right next door but counted as a separate house house and dwelling is Jesse Cowles a 67 year old black male carpenter from Virginia; 
      • and living next to Jesse is a white family with a free 40 year old black woman Sarah Scott who was born in Tennessee; 
      • and living next to all of them is another black family headed by Diley Brown a 54 year old black female and her adult sons? Caswell, Frank, Jack, and Haley (noted as a convict) and teenage daughter Parmelia and teenage son Miles. -- summary for District 9 says 16 males, 12 females
    • District 10 - 40 year old mulatto Betsey A. Caudle born in Virginia with 4 year old mulatto son? Frank and 2 year old mulatto son? Fountain, both born in Tennessee - they are living with the white Jonathon Core family; 
      • next door, living with Thomas A. Graham - who is a white farmer and constable - 12 year old Mary Caudle, a mulatto girl born in Tennessee; 
      • next, 17 year old female mulatto Sarah Caudle from Virginia is living nearby with the William Graham family; 
      • on the next page but also nearby is James Caudle, a 12 year old mulatto boy, living with Dr. Jesse G. Cox's family. 
      • David McLemore is a 21 year old mulatto laborer living with George Andrews' family. 
      • Thomas Halfacre  - a 40 year old black laborer and his wife Penelope and children Pleasant, Washington, Thomas, Jackson, Polly, Nancy and Dilly - all from Tennessee.
    • District 13 - William Cheatham - 59 year old mulatto wool carder and his wife Betsey - both from Virginia as well as their children - all born in Tennessee - Sarah, Willie E., Jas. C., Ruley N, and a grandparent? John A. Cheatham. The entire family is mulatto
    • District 14 - Benjamin McCutchen - 57 year old black farmer from North Carolina living with his father? 88 year old Clem McCutchen also from North Carolina and his 10 year old daughter? Sara McCutchen, born in Tennessee
      • As described above in the 1840 Census regarding Cynthia McCutchen, I believe that Benjamin McCutchen is the Ben named in James McCutchen's will provision below; perhaps he managed to purchase his father and his daughter was born free (?):
      • 'It is my will and desire that my negro man slave named Jack, aged about twenty-four years; also my negro may slave named Ben [b. 1793] aged about nineteen years; also my negro woman slave named Rose, aged about twenty-six years, together with what children she may hereafter have, if any, before the death of my wife Hannah; also my negro girl slave named Eliza, aged about eleven years; also my negro girl slave named Cynthia, aged about seven years; also my negro boy slave named Thomas, aged about four years; also my negro girl slave named Harriet, aged about two years; also my negro girl slave named Maria, aged about two months; the four last mentioned slaves being the children of the above mentioned Rose, shall all and each, at the time of the death of my beloved wife Hannah, to whom they are given during her natural life, as mentioned in the third article, be liberated from slavery, and for ever and entirely set free: provided, those who are not now of age or shall not have arrived at the age of twenty-one years at the happening of the death of my beloved wife Hannah, shall be subject to the following disposition, viz. Eliza shall be at the control and under the direction of my brother Samuel M'Cutchen until her arrival at the age of twenty-one years, and then be set free; Cynthia, Ben, Thomas, Harriet and Maria, shall be at the control and under the direction of James Marshall, my wife's brother, until they shall each, respectively, arrive at the age of twenty-one years; at which time, or times, they are to be each, respectively, liberated, and for ever set free.'
    • District 19 - Jacob Jamieson a 67 year old black farmer born in Virginia, and his wife Lucy - report a net worth of $2,000 - they have a 13 year old daughter Lucy who was born in Tennessee.
    1860 Census
    • Dick (Richard) Poyner with Mely and Philip, 
    • Saunders and Judy Scott, (probably the "Launders" and Judy Scott from the 1850 Census and the Saunders Scott in the 1840 Census)
    • Chaney Robertson and her presumed children? Jessey, Angeline, Samuel H and Mary, 
    • Caroline, Martha and Martin Scott; this is the same Martin Scott who was listed in the 1850 Census as a boot and shoe maker.  He had purchased a lot and built a house near 11th Avenue on Fair Street.  His daughter Martha married Ephraim Otey, a Confederate Body Servant.  The family attended Shorter Chapel AME Church and sent their daughter Carrie to Wilberforce College in Ohio.  When Carrie returned to Franklin she became a well-known and respected teacher and principal of the all-African American school on Natchez Street.
    • William Cheatham and Bettie, Sarah, Ned, James, and John - and 60 year old Mary Epps living next door; 
    • 81 year old Fannie Prowell living with Thomas M  and Emely D; 
    • Milley Carl was a free black woman (60 years old) born in Virginia living in District 1, with a white family - Jane Carl Jane Carl (50), Phoeby Powell (70), Sallie Stewart (26), and James G Alexander (22).
    • George and Ellen Patton and 90 year old Jennie Hicks; 
    • Betsey Stander (perhaps Caudle) and her children Frank, Fountain, and Virginia - living nearby also free living with white family is James Cander perhaps Caudle; 
    • Maria Towell 38 year old mulatto woman (b 1822), in District 1, she appears to be living with a white family made up of Sperson Waddie 22, his wife ? Mary A Waddie.
    • This is a good article regarding the numbers of free people of color throughout Tennessee in its early days as well as a discussion of their legal status.  
    • This is a good resource if you are researching a family member who was a free person of color.  
    • This website contains information about many free people of color in other states. 

    Veteran's Day Porch Talk

    On November 3, 2017 I participated in a Porch Talk at the McLemore House with Harvey Chrismon. We discussed the history of Williamson County's African American veterans - all the way from an enslaved man who gained his freedom fighting for the patriots in the American Revolution to the Tuskegee Airmen.  We had a great turnout and a lively conversation.  It is always a wonderful experience to share the stage with Harvey whose voice adds a dimension to discussions that I can not contribute.


    The Tennessee Tribune newspaper wrote a nice article about our program.